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For Further Study

1. African American Newspapers and Journalists

  • Alexander, Ann Field, Race Man: The Rise and Fall of Fighting Editor, John Mitchell Jr. (Richmond, VA, 2002)
  • Bay, Mia, To Tell the Truth Freely: The Life of Ida B. Wells (New York, 2009)
  • Dann, Martin, The Black Press 1827–1890: The Quest for National Identity (New York, 1971)
  • Detweiler, Frederick G., The Negro Press in the United States (College Park, MD, 1968)
  • Domke, David, “The Black Press in the ‘Nadir’ of African Americans” Journalism History 20 (Autumn 1994): 131–38
  • Giddings, Paula, Ida, A Sword Among Lions: Ida B. Wells and the Campaign Against Lynching (Amistad, 2008)
  • Jeter, Marvin D. and Mark Cervenka, “H. J. Lewis, Free man and Freeman artist,” Common Place 7, no. 3 (April 2007) at
  • Jordon, William, Black Newspapers and America’s War for Democracy, 1914–1920 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2001)
  • Klassen, Teresa C. and Owen V. Johnson, “Sharpening of the Blade: Black Consciousness in Kansas,” Journalism Quarterly 63 (Summer 1986): 298–304
  • Lebsock, Suzanne, A Murder in Virginia: Southern Justice on Trial (New York, 2003)
  • Meier, August, “Booker T. Washington and the Negro Press,” in Along the Color Line: Explorations in the Black Experience, ed. A. Meier and Elloitt Rudwick (Urbana, IL, 1976); 56–74
  • Penn, J. Garland, The Afro-American Press and Its Editors (NY: Willey & Company, 1891)
  • Pride, Armistead, A History of the Black Press (Washington, DC, 1997)
  • Ratzlaff, Aleen J., “Illustrated African American Journalism: Political Cartooning in the Indianapolis Freeman,” in Seeking a Voice: Images of Race and Gender in the 19th Century Press, ed. David B. Sachsbaum, et al. (West Lafayette, IN, 2009), 131–40
  • Schechter, Patricia, Ida B. Wells-Barnett and American Reform, 1880–1930 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2001)
  • Stevens, Summer E. and Owen V. Johnson, “From Black Politics to Black Community: Harry C. Smith and the Cleveland Gazette,” Journalism Quarterly, 67, no. 4 (Winter 1990): 1090–1102
  • Suggs, Henry, ed., The Black Press of the South (Westport, CT, 1983)
  • Thornbrough, Emma Lou, “American Negro Newspapers, 1880–1914,” The Business History Review 40 (Winter 1966): 467–90

2. Lynching and Anti-Lynching Activism

  • Gussow, Adam, Seems Like Murder Here: Southern Violence and the Blues Tradition (Chicago, IL, 2002)
  • Mitchell, Living With Lynching: African American Plays, Performances and Citizenship 1890-1930 (Champaigne, IL: 2012)
  • Waldrep, Christopher, The Many Faces of Judge Lynch: Extralegal Violence and Punishment in America (New York, 2002)
  • Waldrep, Christopher, African Americans Confront Lynching: Strategies of Resistance from the Civil War to the Civil Rights Era (New York, 2009)

3. Lynching and Anti-Lynching Imagery

  • Apel, Dora, Imagery of Lynching: Black Men, White Women, and the Mob (New Brunswick, NY, 2004)
  • Apel, Dora and Shawn Michelle Smith, Lynching Photos (Berkeley, CA, 2007)
  • Gonzales-Day, Kenneth, Lynching in the West: 1850–1935 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2006)
  • Raiford, Leigh, Imprisoned in a Luminous Gaze: Photography and the African American Freedom Struggle (Chapel Hill, NC, 2011)
  • Wood, Amy, Lynching and Spectacle: Witnessing Racial Violence in America,1890–1940 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2009)

4. The “Rape/Lynching Narrative”

  • Bay, Mia, The White Image in the Black Mind: African-American Ideas About White People, 1830–1925, (New York, 2000)
  • Bederman, Gail, Manliness and Civilization: A Cultural History of Gender and Race in the United States, 1880–1917 (Chicago, IL, 1995)
  • Clinton, Catherine, “With a Whip in His Hand: Rape, Memory and African American Women” in History and Memory in African-American Culture, ed. Genevieve Fabre and Robert O’Meally (New York, 1994), 205–18
  • Davis, Angela Y., “Rape, Racism, and the Myth of the Black Rapist,” in Women, Race, and Class (New York, 1981)
  • Dunlap, Leslie, “The Reform of Rape Law and the Problem of the White Man: Age of Consent Campaigns in the South, 1885–1910,” in Sex, Love, Race: Crossing Boundaries in North American History, ed. Martha Hodes (New York, 1999), 352–72
  • Freedman, Estelle, “‘Crimes Which Startle and Horrify . . .’: Gender, Age, and the Racialization of Sexual Violence in White American Newspapers, 1870–1900,” Journal of the History of Sexuality 20, no. 3 (2011): 465–497.
  • Gilmore, Glenda Elizabeth, Gender and Jim Crow: Women and the Politics of White Supremacy in North Carolina, 1896–1920 (Chapel Hill, NC, 1996)
  • Gunning, Sandra, Race, Rape, and Lynching: The Red Record of American Literature, 1890–1912 (New York, 1996)
  • Hale, Grace, Making Whiteness: The Culture of Segregation in the South, 1890–1940 (New York, 1998)
  • Hall, Jacquelyn Dowd, “The Mind That Burns in Each Body: Women, Rape, and Racial Violence,” in The Politics of Sexuality, ed. A. Snitow, et al. (New York, 1983), 328–49
  • Harris, Trudier, Exorcizing Blackness: Historical and Literary Analysis of Lynching and Burning Rituals (Indianapolis, IN, 1984)
  • Hodes, Martha, White Women,Black Men: Illicit Sex in the Nineteenth Century South (New Haven, CT, 1997)
  • Morton, Patricia, Disfigured Images: The Historical Assault on Afro-American Women (New York, 1991)
  • Painter, Nell Irvin, “Race, Gender, and Class in The Mind of the South: Cash’s Maps of Sexuality and Power,” in W. J. Cash and the Minds of the South, ed. Paul D. Escott (Baton Rouge, LA, 1992), 88–111
  • Wiegman, Robyn, American Anatomies: Theorizing Race and Gender (Chapel Hill, NC, 1995)

 5. Racial Identities and 1890s Political Culture

  • Gatewood, Willard B., Black Americans and the White Man’s Burden, 1898–1903 (Chicago, IL, 1975)
  • Harlan, Louis B., Booker T. Washington: The Wizard of Tuskegee, 1901–1915 (New York, 1983), 32–106
  • Perman, Michael, Struggle for Mastery: Disfranchisement in the South, 1888–1908 (Chapel Hill, NC, 2001)
  • Harpine, William D., From the Front Porch to the Front Page: McKinley and Bryan in the 1896 Presidential Campaign (College Station, TX, 2005)
  • Sherman, Richard B., The Republican Party and Black America: From McKinley to Hoover, 1896–1933 (Charlottesville, VA, 1973)
  • Verney, The Art of the Possible: Booker T. Washington and Black Leadership in the United States, 1881–1925 (New Brunswick, NJ, 2001)